Automotive 101: What Are Some of the Key Things Everyone Should Know About Car Batteries
A car's battery is very important and powers everything from the fuel pump, headlights and heated seats to the radio
You've probably stumbled across this article because you suspect a problem with your car's battery. Without it, you would not have power to do anything from starting the engine in subzero temperatures to cruising down the highway on a sunny day. Engines do a lot of work and should get credit for what they do. But without the battery, your engine would just be a several thousand dollar paperweight.
The battery, not the alternator, powers the car
Many people think that the alternator powers the car, but it's the battery that provides the juice for your electronics.
Your vehicle needs a steady and stable source of power. Because of fluctuations in your power needs, such as turning on your heater or headlights, the amount of power needed varies from one moment to the next. Your alternator may not be able to put out the required power as it's output is proportional to engine speed. So your electronics pull power from the battery, which has a lot of power ready for your needs. During periods of high power usage, your battery will slowly discharge, even though the alternator is providing it with power. During times of low power usage, your alternator will slowly recharge the battery.
Overloading and discharging a battery can damage it
Vehicles that operate a lot of accessories, are operated infrequently, or that make frequent short trips may not have enough time to fully recharge the battery. These vehicles may have a dead battery every few weeks. A battery that frequently discharges won't last as long as a battery operated under normal conditions. It can even cause the alternator to have a shortened lifespan as it must operate under a high load all the time.
How long will my car's battery last?
There's really no easy way to answer that question. Older batteries don't perform as well as newer batteries and thus won't last as long as a brand new one. But even a new battery won't last forever. Batteries typically last anywhere from three to five years on average, but this is only an average. Some fail more quickly and some last much longer. It all depends upon the type, the brand, and how well you care for it. Just like the rest of your car, maintenance can have a big impact on battery life. Make sure to follow all recommended maintenance on your battery, such as ensuring adequate fluid levels and keeping the terminals clean.
Battery Warranties: Installed by the Car Manufacturer
If you have a battery that is covered under your car manufacturer's warranty, you likely aren't getting as much peace of mind as someone who buys and installs a battery outright. Despite most vehicles being covered for three years or 36,000 miles from the date of purchase under the 'bumper-to-bumper' warranty, batteries are consumable items and typically have a full warranty of only two years or 24,000 miles, after which converting to a prorated warranty or none at all. Check your car's warranty manual to determine the warranty coverage for your battery. If you suspect a battery problem and are still covered by warranty, get it checked before the warranty expires.
Battery Warranties: Installed by You or a Third Party
There are big differences in battery warranties. One of the biggest differences is cost, but it's easy to simplify matters if you think of the cost as the price of the battery plus the cost of the battery warranty.
Some expensive batteries have a five year warranty over the standard two year warranty on another of the same brand. You may see confusing terminology, such as 'silver' or 'gold,' or you may have a part counter employee trying to get you to upgrade. The difference is usually, but not always, in the length of the warranty on the battery. But is that longer warranty worth the extra money upfront? It's usually not worth the money to get a battery with a better warranty. A longer warranty doesn't mean that the battery is any better, will perform better or last longer.
Regardless of the length of the warranty, batteries are usually prorated after a few years anyway. Let's take a hypothetical five year warranty. The first two years may be 100% replacement, but for each month past two years up until five years, the amount the manufacturer will reimburse you for a failed battery decreases each month. If your battery was $100 and your battery fails a month before the five year warranty expires, you might be shelling out $97 for a new one.
In any case, the service center or parts department will have to verify your warranty if you need to make a claim. If records aren't on file, you may have to provide your receipt, which can get lost. Make sure you keep your receipt in a place you can easily find it. Don't rely on the plastic pockets sometimes attached to the battery. If the battery leaks acid, your receipt is gone. Keep your receipt in your car and take a good quality photo. In time, receipts seem to fade and become illegible.
I Suspect a Problem with my car's battery
If you suspect that your battery might be going the way of the dinosaur, have it tested first. Many auto parts stores offer free battery testing, so it's easy to get your battery tested every few months when popping in for a set of wiper blades.
A word of caution if you decide to have your battery tested by a parts store: some store associates work on commission and are dishonest. When testing your battery, make sure the associate inputs the correct Cold Cranking Amps (CCA) number from your battery label into the tester. If the associate accidentally inputs a baseline number too high, your battery will fail the test, even if it is perfectly fine. If you doubt the test, take it somewhere else. You may even find out that your battery is fine but some component is drawing too much power or your system isn't generating enough power. Just remember that parts store associates are not mechanics and don't have the mechanical know-how to properly diagnose a problem. If they were mechanics, they wouldn't be working at a parts store! If you think you have a problem with your car beyond a simple battery replacement, it's time to visit the shop.
Signs to Have Your Battery Checked
Engine Cranks, But Doesn't Start
Most people reach for jumper cables when the car cranks but doesn't start. In many cases, the battery has discharged and isn't able to start the car. But that's not always the case. If the car seems to have a lot of juice and can turn the engine over rapidly, the battery may not be the culprit.
Three things are needed to start a car: power, air and fuel. If the car doesn't start, it's not getting enough of one of these items. You can always give the horn a quick press to see if it sounds good and loud. If it's weak or doesn't work at all, you aren't getting enough or any power. The battery may be dead, weak or have loose connections. If the battery has died, drive the car for a sufficient enough time to recharge the battery or recharge it with a charging device. You may have to drive on the highway to get enough of a charge to start it again later. Definitely have your battery and charging system checked at this point as a discharged battery can soon fail.
No Power to the Vehicle, Such as Lights, Horn, Etc
As mentioned in the previous section, a weak or inoperative horn indicates that not enough power is making it to the vehicle. But what if you are already driving and suspect you have a weak battery? Are your headlights flickering or getting dim? Is your radio turning itself off and on again? Does it feel as if you are going to stall? There is a good chance that you aren't getting enough power! If you suspect that you aren't getting enough power, you should immediately turn off any accessories you don't need in order to conserve enough power to get your car to a safe place. You'll have to have your battery and charging system tested. You might even be pleased to learn that your battery tests fine but has a buildup of corrosion on the terminals preventing power from getting to where it needs to go.
Hard Starting in Cold Weather
When the weather gets colder, your battery has to work much harder to start the car. Cold weather reduces conductivity, which means not as much power is making it through the wires and cables as would normally happen in the summer. If you are experiencing hard starts when it is cold out that seem to improve when it gets warmer, you definitely need to test the system. Make sure that the Cold Cranking Amps (CCA) rating on your battery is sized appropriately for your vehicle.
Check Engine Light
The check engine light usually illuminates when there's a problem with a particular component in your car. But if the battery isn't providing enough power to these components, these components might malfunction. Your mechanic should always check the battery and charging system whenever you have any malfunction lights illuminated. If the battery or charing system needs repairs, perform these first and then reevaluate for other problems once the system has enough juice.
Low Fluid Level
The battery's fluid helps it maintain charge. If the fluid level dips too low, the battery can become damaged or may be weak. You can check the fluid level by removing one of the caps. Add only distilled water if the level is low and have the system tested. A low fluid level could mean that your battery is overheating. A sealed battery will never need to be checked. Many batteries produced today are sealed, but some inexpensive batteries are not.
If the battery case is swollen or bulging, it's bad. This is usually a result of overcharging, but can also result from excessive heat. The battery should be replaced and the charging system tested. Do not drive the vehicle is the battery is swollen. It can explode with a lot of force.
If a sealed battery is leaking, it should be replaced as they are not designed to leak. If you have an unsealed battery (has removable caps on top) and it's leaking from the case, it should be replaced. If it is leaking from a cap on top, it might be overheating causing some of the fluid to boil out.